Iron leaks

Iron leaks

In an electric motor the efficiency is higher the more copper and iron leaks are reduced. To obtain the best compromise results between the highest possible yield and the cost-effectiveness of the product, it is necessary to keep well under control the extent and causes of such leaks. While for copper it is relatively simple to verify the extent of leaks and adopt the most appropriate remedies, for iron, both in the stator and rotor packs, this process is much more challenging, as there could be multiple concurrent causes.

The equipment that we have studied and built allows a comparative assessment of leaks in the iron of stator and rotor packs against a sample pack.

The magnetic leaks in an alternating current machine are the result of hysteresis and eddy current leaks, and approximately proportional to the square of the flow density of the magnetic circuit.

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How to detect iron leaks

By checking a sample stator pack, it is possible to detect an increase in iron leaks due to the different processing stages, which are essentially:

  • Leaks due to shearing as a result of the breaking of the crystalline system that makes up the sheet
  • Leaks due to short-circuit among metal sheets due to the burr generated by cutting, especially due to reduced sharpening of the dies
  • Leaks caused by a variety of packing systems, such as: stapling, riveting, nailing, welding, buttoning, etc.
  • Reduced surface insulation of the metal sheets, with a consequent increase in inter-lamellar eddy currents
  • Control of the effectiveness of the heat processing of the package, to facilitate the orientation of the crystals and to improve inter-lamellar insulation

It is possible to detect both iron leaks in watts of the entire stator pack at different induction values, and to display the hysteresis curve to evaluate the degree of saturation of the pack.

By means of a data acquisition and digitization system, the system software also provides a graphical representation of both the induced voltage and magnetizing current values and, after the subsequent mathematical integration processing on the waveform of the induced voltage, of the graphical representation of the magnetization curve or magnetic hysteresis. In this way, a useful tool is provided to evaluate the degree of magnetic saturation of the core and, at the same time, to have a visual quantification of the leaks resulting from magnetic hysteresis.

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